concept of Business Environment


Concept of Business Environment

A business firm is an open system. It gets resources from the environment and supplies its goods and services to the environment. There are different levels of environmental forces. Some are close and internal forces whereas others are external forces. External forces may be related to national level, regional level or international level. These environmental forces provide opportunities or threats to the business community. Every business organization tries to grasp the available opportunities and face the threats that emerge from the business environment. Business organizations cannot change the external environment but they just react. They change their internal business components (internal environment) to grasp the external opportunities and face the external environmental threats. It is, therefore, very important to analyze business environment to survive and to get success for a business in its industry. It is, therefore, a vital role of managers to analyze business environment so that they could pursue effective business strategy.

The business environment or the external forces acting on the business consists of a large number of forces.

These are.

  1. Demographic
  2. Geographical
  3. Ecological
  4. Social and Cultural
  5. Political & Legal
  6. Technological

1. Demographic Factors:

Demography is a study of human population with reference to its size, density, distribution and other connected vital statistics. This information is very essential in modern days for planning and development and also for framing laws relating to society and business. The density of population, the extent of their standard of living, the level of their education and the nature of their occupation etc., greatly influence the type of business the entrepreneurs could undertake. The business units require customers for its survival and growth; naturally business can thrive in populace regions, though now-a day’s transportation helps a lot in bringing the commodities to the scarcely populated areas.

2. Geographical and Ecological Environment:

  • Geographical conditions, to a greater extent, influence the type of industries and business in a region. Generally, the people of a particular geographical region will have similar tastes, preferences and requirements. The geographical situation, the physical feature, the climate, rainfall, humidity, the vegetation, etc., decide the type of living in a particular region and only those industries which could cater to the needs of the people, could develop. In other words, geographical conditions exert profound influence on the location of the business.
  • Ecological is a study “dealing with the interaction of living organism with each other and with their non-living environment”. It is a science telling about the relationship of all living beings. (ie., human beings, animals, plants) with non- living beings (air, water, soil represented by atmosphere, rivers, lakes, mountains and land).

3. Social and Cultural Environment:

Social and Cultural attitudes of a region influence the business organizations of the region influence the business organizations of the region in a verity of ways. The business practices and the management technique of the organization should cope with the social and cultural attitudes of the people.

The modern business is a social system in itself, but it is also part of a larger social system represented by society in general. Clearly, there should be some reciprocal relationship between business and this larger society. To put it shortly, the business should adopt itself to the social and cultural environment.

4. Political and Legal Environment:

Political Environment:

All business firms are directly affected to a greater or lesser degree by the government and its programmes. Political forces will decide the nature of business, programmes and projects to be undertaken for the development of the country. These political forces can be classified as long term forces, quick changes, cyclical changes and regional factors.

5. Technological Environment

Technology means “the systematic knowledge of the industrial arts”. ‘Technique’ denotes the method of performance. These two are increasingly used in modern literature on industrial production. The present age is the age of technology. Technology affects the business in two ways.

  • Its impact on the society and
  • Its impact on business operation.

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