working of stock exchanges in India


Stock Exchanges are an organized marketplace, either corporation or mutual organization, where members of the organization gather to trade company stocks or other securities. The members may act either as agents for their customers, or as principals for their own accounts.

As per the Securities Contracts Regulation Act, 1956 a stock exchange is an association, organization or body of individuals whether incorporated or not, established for the purpose of assisting, regulating and controlling business in buying, selling and dealing in securities. Stock exchanges facilitate for the issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments including the payment of income and dividends. The record keeping is central but trade is linked to such physical place because modern markets are computerized. The trade on an exchange is only by members and stock broker do have a seat on the exchange.

BOMBAY STOCK EXCHANGE

A very common name for all traders in the stock market, BSE, stands for Bombay Stock Exchange. It is the oldest market not only in the country, but also in Asia. In the early days, BSE was known as "The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association." It was established in the year 1875 and became the first stock exchange in the country to be recognized by the government. In 1956, BSE obtained a permanent recognition from the Government of India under the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956.





NATIONAL STOCK EXCHANGE OF INDIA LIMITED
The National Stock Exchange of India Limited has genesis in the report of the High Powered Study Group on Establishment of New Stock Exchanges, which recommended promotion of a National Stock Exchange by financial institutions (FI’s) to provide access to investors from all across the country on an equal footing. Based on the recommendations, NSE was promoted by leading Financial Institutions at the behest of the Government of India and was incorporated in November 1992 as a tax-paying company unlike other stock Exchange in the country.

On its recognition as a stock exchange under the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 in April 1993, NSE commenced operations in the Wholesale Debt Market (WDM) segment in June 1994. The Capital Market (Equities) segment commenced operations in November 1994 and operations in Derivatives segment commenced in June 2000.

OVER THE COUNTER EXCHANGE OF INDIA

OTCEI was incorporated in 1990 as a section 25 company under the companies Act 1956 and is recognized as a stock exchange under section 4 of the securities Contracts Regulation Act, 1956. The exchange was set up to aid enterprising promotes in raising finance for new projects in a cost effective manner and to provide investors with a transparent and efficient mode of trading Modeled along the lines of the NASDAQ market of USA, OTCEI introduced many novel concepts to the Indian capital markets such as screen-based nationwide trading, sponsorship of companies, market making and scrip less trading.


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