The Indian financial system coined more particularly immediately after the independence 1947. Since 1947, the role of the financial system is more vibrant in meeting the needs and demands of not only the country but also the corporate sectors. It outperformed in the economy for the development of the nation through the collection of saving from the households for development of the nation as well as the corporate sectors. The Indian financial system could be bifurcated into two different segments viz.
Capital Market and Money market
These two markets are further classified into organized and unorganized.
The capital market which was initially controlled and organized by the Controller of Capital Issues act and then it was replaced by the Securities Exchange Board of India for the governance of capital market in India. The capital market in India is known as regulated in spheres by SEBI then and there. The organised capital market is bifurcated into two categories viz Primary market and
Secondary market.
Primary market: It is the market for the fresh issuance of securities by the new as well
as existing companies, in order to raise the capital from the investors. The Primary market is further classified into many segments Initial Public offering: As a new company registered under the Companies Act 1956 is permitted to raise the capital from the market through the abridged prospectus.
Public issue: It is another mode of raising the capital from the common public by the
existing companies.
Private placement: During the issue, the larger investment houses are invited for the subscription of the issue of securities in bulk quantities at a discount price prior to the
issue. After the issue, according to the investment policy of the Institutional investors,
they sell them at higher price to the individual investors. This facilitates the institutional
investors to book profits through the process of private placement.
Underwriting: It is another mode of issuing the securities during the issue, more
particularly this mode of issue is found to be an avenue to off-load the risk of managing
the issue of securities as well as to secure the issue as fully subscribed.
Secondary market: It is the market for the securities which are already available in the
market, to buy and sell among the players. This is the market further classified into two
different categories viz mutualisation and demutualisation of stock exchanges.
Mutualised Stock exchanges: These are the exchanges never have any distinction
among the members, management and governing body of the stock exchange. These
are purely administered by the members/brokers of the stock exchange, e.g.,. Traditional
stock exchanges.
Demutualised stock exchanges: These are separate distinct faces among themselves.
The roles and responsibilities of the brokers, governing body members and people in the
management are clearly defined and performed by them without any ambiguity e.g.
OTCEI, NSE and so on.

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