TRAINING TECHNIQUES

Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at the actual workplace; off-the-job training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real workspot. Some of the widely used training methods are listed below.
Job Instruction Training (JIT)
The JIT method (developed during World War II) is a four-step instructional process involving preparation, presentation, performance try out and follow up. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. A trainer, supervisor or co-worker acts as
the coach. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are:
i. The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevance of training.
ii. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job.
iii. Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer’s way. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job.
iv. Finally, the employee does the job independently without supervision
Coaching
Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors. It involves a continuous process of learning by doing. It may be defined as an informal, unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisors and peers. In coaching, the supervisor explains things and answers questions; he throws light on why things are done the way they are; he offers a model for trainees to copy; conducts lot of decision making meetings with trainees; procedures are agreed upon and the trainee is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit mistakes. Of course, coaching can be a taxing job in that the coach may not possess requisite skills to guide the learner in a systematic way. Sometimes, doing a full day’s work may be more important than putting the learner on track.
When to use coaching usefully? Coaching could be put to good use when:
i. an employee demonstrates a new competency
ii. an employee expresses interest in a different job within the organisation
iii. an employee seeks feedback
iv. an employee is expressing low morale, violating company policies or practices or
having performance problems
v. an employee needs help with a new skill following a formal training programme.
Effective working, obviously, requires patience and communication skills. It involves:
i. explaining appropriate ways of doing things
ii. making clear why actions were taken
iii. stating observations accurately
Mentoring
Mentoring is a relationship in which a senior manager in an organisation assumes the responsibility for grooming a junior person. Technical, interpersonal and political skills are generally conveyed in such a relationship from the more experienced person. A mentor is a teacher, spouse, counsellor, developer of skills and intellect, host, guide, exemplar, and most importantly, supporter and facilitator in the realisation of the vision the young person (protégé) has about the kind of life he wants as an adult. The main objective of mentoring is to help an employee attain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get integrated with the organisation. In a work situation, such mentoring can take place at both formal and informal levels, depending on the prevailing work culture and the commitment from the top management. Formal mentoring can be very fruitful, if management invests time and money in such relationship building exercises. The important features/processes of mentoring may be.
SPECIAL PURPOSE TRAINING
Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can focus his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. Off-the-job training methods are as follows:
i. Vestibule training: In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. Material, files and equipment – those that are used in actual job performance are also used in the training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from a few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method.
ii. Role playing: It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic
behaviour in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing
and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters, such as the
production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineers,
quality control inspectors, foreman, workers and the like. This method is mostly
used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.
iii. Lecture method: The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The
instructor organises the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a
talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the
trainees. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a
large group of trainees. Thus, costs and time involved are reduced. The major
limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer of training
effectively.
iv. Conference/discussion approach: In this method, the trainer delivers a lecture
and involves the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job get clarified.
When big organisations use this method, the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as
blackboards, mockups and slides; in some cases the lectures are videotaped or
audio taped. Even the trainee’s presentation can be taped for self-confrontation
and self-assessment. The conference is, thus, a group-centred approach where
there is a clarification of ideas, communication of procedures and standards to the
trainees. Those individuals who have a general educational background and whatever
specific skills are required – such as typing, shorthand, office equipment operation,
filing, indexing, recording, etc. – may be provided with specific instructions to handle
their respective jobs.
v. Programmed instruction: This method has become popular in recent years. The subject-matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction.The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is, thus, expensive and time-consuming.

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