UNION STRUCTURE

Indian labour is represented by many different kinds of unions:
Craft unions
A craft union is one whose members do one type of work, often using specialised skills and training. It is horizontal in character as its members belong to a single process or group of processes. A craft union enjoys strong bargaining power as its members possess specialised skills that cannot be easily replaced in case of a strike.
Industrial union
An industrial union is one that includes many persons working in the same industry or company, regardless of jobs held. It is vertical in nature as it consists of all types of workers in an industry. An industrial union also enjoys strong bargaining strength as it consists of both skilled and unskilled workers. The employer may find it easy to negotiate with one union covering all workers rather than deal with a number of craft unions in case of a dispute.
General union
This type of union consists of workers employed in different industries and crafts within a particular city or region. In this case, all workers are equal and there is no distinction between skilled and unskilled workers. There is convenience in negotiations as the employer need not bargain with so many splintered groups. Workers, of course, become part of a huge crowd and the interests of an important group many not be represented properly.
There could be plant level unions, in addition to the above, where all workers in a factory or establishment join hands to protect their interests.
Federations
These are national level entitles to which plant level unions, craft unions, industrial unions and general unions are affiliated. These are apex bodies, coordinating the affairs of various unions in their fold.

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